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Home >> Patient Resources >> Neurological Glossary

Neurological Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

ABSCESS

A circumscribed collection of pus.

ACOUSTIC NEURINOMAS

Benign tumor of the hearing nerve (eighth nerve).

ACROMEGALY

Disorder marked by progressive enlargement of the head, face, hands, feet, and thorax, due to the excessive secretion of growth hormone.

ADENOMA

A benign growth formed of glandular tissue.

AGNOSIA

Absence of the ability to recognize the form and nature of persons and things.

AGRAPHIA

Loss of the power of writing due either to muscular incoordination or to an inability to phrase thought.

AMAUROSIS

Loss of vision without discoverable lesion in the eye structures or optic nerve. Amaurosis fugax - temporary blindness occurring in short periods.

AMENORRHEA

Absence of the menses due to causes other than pregnancy or advancing age.

AMNESIA

Loss of memory caused by brain damage or by severe emotional trauma.

ANALGESIA

Loss of sensibility to pain, loss of response to a painful stimulus.

ANAPLASIA

In the case of a body cell, a reversion to a more primitive condition. A term used to denote the alteration in cell character which constitutes malignancy.

ANASTOMOSIS

A communication, direct or indirect: A joining together. In the nervous system a jointing of nerves or blood vessels.

ANENCEPHALY

Absence of the greater part of the brain, often with skull deformity.

ANESTHESIA

Loss of sensation of a body part; or of the body when induced by the administration of a drug.

ANESTHESIOLOGIST

Physician who administers pain-killing medications during surgery.

ANEURYSM

Dilation of an artery, formed by a circumscribed enlargement of its wall. Saccular (berry) aneurysm - sac-like bulging on one side of an artery usually arising at an arterial branching.

ANGIOGRAM

A study which shows the blood vessels leading to and in the brain by injecting a dye or contrast substance through a catheter placed in the artery in the leg.

ANGIOGRAPHY

Radiography of blood vessels using the injection of material opaque to x-rays to give better definition to the vessels.

ANOREXIA

Loss of appetite; a condition marked by loss of appetite leading to weight loss.

ANOSMIC

Without the sense of smell.

ANOXIA

Total lack of oxygen supply.

ANTI-COAGULANT

A medication that prevents coagulation of the blood.

ANTIDIURETIC

An agent which reduces the output of urine. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is formed in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. Its secretion reduces urine output.

APHASIA

Difficulty with, or loss of use of, language in any of several ways including reading, writing or speaking. Failure of understanding of the written, printed or spoken word not related to intelligence but to specific lesions in the brain.

APNEA

Cessation of respiration; inability to get one's breath.

APOPLEXY

A sudden event. Often used as equivalent to stroke.

ARACHNOID

Middle layer of membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

ARACHNOIDITIS

Inflammation of the arachnoid membrane, most commonly seen within the spinal cord around the spinal cord and cauda equina.

AREA (Cortical)

A part of the brain having a special function as in Motor a. - The cortical portion of the brain controlling movement. Sensory a. - The cortical portion, controlling sensation.

ARTERIOGRAPHY

See angiography.

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

Thickening and calcification of the arterial wall with loss of elasticity and contractility.

ARTERIOVENOUS

Relating to both arteries and veins.

ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION

Collection of blood vessels with one or several abnormal communications between arteries and veins which may cause hemorrhage or seizures.

ASTROCYTE

Cell which supports the nerve cells (neurons) of the brain and spinal cord.

ASTROCYTOMA

Tumor within the substance of the brain or spinal cord made up of astrocytes - often classified from Grade I (slow-growing) to Grade III (rapid-growing).

ATAXIA

A loss of muscular coordination, abnormal clumsiness.

ATHETOSIS

A condition in which there is a succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of the fingers and hands, and sometimes of the toes and feet.

ATROPHY

A wasting of the tissues of a body part.

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Involuntary nervous system, also termed the vegetative nervous system. A system of nerve cells whose activities are beyond voluntary control.

AVASCULAR

Non-vascular, not provided with blood vessels.

AXON

The part of a nerve cell that usually sends signals to other nerves or structures.

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BACTERICIDAL

Causing the death of bacteria.

BACTERIOSTATIC

Inhibiting or retarding the growth of bacteria.

BELL'S PALSY

Paralysis of facial muscles (usually one side) due to facial nerve dysfunction of unknown cause.

BIOPSY

Removal of a small portion of tissue, usually for the purpose of making a diagnosis.

BLOOD-BRAIN-BARRIER

The barrier which exists between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid which prevents the passage of various substances from the bloodstream to the brain.

BRADYCARDIA

Slowness of the heart rate.

BRADYKINESIA

Slowness in movement.

BROWN-SEQUARD'S SYNDROME

Loss of sensation of touch, position sense, and movement on the side of a spinal cord lesion, with loss of pain sensation on the other side. Caused by a lesion limited to one side of spinal cord.

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CARCINOMA

Cancer, a malignant growth of epithelial or gland cells.

CAROTID ARTERY

Large artery on either side of the neck which supplies most of the cerebral hemisphere.

CAROTID SINUS

Slight dilatation on the common carotid artery at its bifurcation containing nerve cells sensitive to blood pressure. Stimulation can cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation and a fall in blood pressure.

CARPAL TUNNEL

Space under a ligament in wrist through which the median nerve enters the palm of the hand.

CATHETER

A small tube used to inject a dye to see the blood vessels, similar to that used for looking at vessels in the heart.

CAUDA EQUINA

The bundle of spinal nerve roots arising from the end of the spinal cord and filling the lower part of the spinal canal (from approximately the thoraco-lumbar junction down).

CAUDATE NUCLEUS

Part of the basal ganglia which are brain cells that lie deep in the brain.

CEREBELLUM

The lower part of the brain which is beneath the posterior portion of the cerebrum and regulates unconscious coordination of movement.

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

Water-like fluid produced in the brain that circulates around and protects the brain and spinal cord.

CEREBRUM

The principal portion of the brain, which occupies the major portion of the interior of the skull and controls conscious movement, sensation and thought.

CERVICAL

Of or relating to the neck.

CHIASM (OPTIC)

Crossing of visual fibers as they head toward the opposite side of the brain. For each optic nerve most of the visual fibers cross to the opposite side; some run directly backward on each side without crossing.

CHOREA

A disorder, usually of childhood, characterized by irregular, spasmodic involuntary movements of the limbs or facial muscles.

CHOROID PLEXUS

A vascular structure in the ventricles of the brain which produces cerebrospinal fluid.

COCCYX

The small bone at the end of the spinal column in man, formed by the fusion of four rudimentary vertebrae. The "tail bone."

COMA

A state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused.

COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SCAN

A diagnostic imaging technique in which a computer reads x-rays to create a three-dimensional map of soft tissue or bone.

CONCUSSION

A disruption, usually temporary, of neurological function resulting from a blow or violent shaking.

CONTRAST MEDIUM

Any material (usually opaque to x-rays) employed to delineate or define a structure during a radiologic procedure.

CONTUSION

A bruise; an area in which blood that has leaked out of blood vessels is mixed with brain tissue.

CORONAL SUTURE

The line of junction of the frontal bones and the parietal bones of the skull.

CORTEX

The external layer of gray matter covering the hemispheres of the cerebrum and cerebellum.

CRANIECTOMY

Excision of a portion of the skull.

CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA

Congenital tumor arising from the embryonic duct between the brain and pharynx.

CRANIOPLASTY

The operative repair of a defect of the skull.

CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS

Premature closure of cranial sutures, limiting or distorting the growth of the skull.

CRANIOTOMY

Opening of the skull, usually by creating a flap of bone.

CRANIUM

The part of the skull that holds the brain.

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid.

CT SCAN (Computed Tomography Scan):

A diagnostic imaging technique in which a computer reads x-rays to create a three-dimensional map of soft tissue or bone.

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DEPRESSED SKULL FRACTURE

A break in the bones of the head in which some bone is pushed inward, possibly pushing on or cutting into the brain.

DIABETES INSIPIDUS

Excretion of large amounts of urine of low specific gravity. The inability to concentrate urine.

DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY

Damage to the axons of many nerve cells that lie in different parts of the brain.

DIFFUSE BRAIN INJURY

Damage to the brain that can affect many parts of the brain, often in a subtle fashion; examples include diffuse axonal injury and inadequate blood flow.

DIPHENYLHYDANTOIN

Dilantin; a medication used to control seizures.

DIPLOPIA

Double vision, due usually to weakness or paralysis of one or more of the extra-ocular muscles.

DISC

The intervertebral disc - cartilaginous cushion found between the vertebrae of the spinal column. It may bulge beyond the vertebral body and compress the nearby nerve root, causing pain. The terms "slipped disc," "ruptured disc" and "herniated disc" are often used interchangeably even though there are subtle differences.

DOME

The round balloon-like portion of the aneurysm which usually arises from the artery from a smaller portion called the neck of the aneurysm.

DOPPLER

A non-invasive study which uses sound waves to show the flow in a blood vessel and can be used to determine the degree of narrowing (percent stenosis) of the vessel. A wand is placed on the skin over the vessel to be imaged. This study has no risks and is not painful.

DURA

Dura mater.

DURA MATER

A tough fibrous membrane which covers the brain and spinal cord, but is separated from them by a small space.

DYSESTHESIA

A condition in which a disagreeable sensation is produced by ordinary touch, temperature or movement.

DYSPHASIA

Difficulty in the use of language due to a brain lesion without mental impairment.

DYSTONIA MUSCULORM DEFORMANS

An affliction occurring especially in children, marked by muscular contractions producing distortions of the spine and hips.

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EDEMA

An excessive accumulation of fluid generally in extracellular.

ELECTROENCEPHALOPGRAHY (EEG)

The study of the electrical currents set up by brain actions; the record made is called an electroencephalogram.

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (EMG)

A method of recording the electrical currents generated in a muscle during its contraction.

ENDARTERECTOMY

Removal of fatty or cholesterol plaques and calcified deposits from the internal wall of an artery.

ENDOCRINE GLAND

A gland which furnishes an internal secretion, usually having an effect on another organ.

ENDOCRINOPATHY

Any disease due to abnormality of quantity or quality in one or more of the internal glandular secretions.

EPENDYMA

The membrane lining the cerebral ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord.

EPENDYMOMA

A growth in the brain or spinal cord arising from ependymal tissue.

EPIDURAL

Immediately outside the dura mater. Same as extradural.

EPIDURAL HEMATOMA

A blood clot between the dura mater and the inside of the skull.

EPILEPSY

Disorder characterized by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain, causing abnormal sensation, movement or level of consciousness.

FALX (CEREBRI)

An extension of dura between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

FONTANELLE

Normal openings in he skull of infants; the largest of these is the anterior fontanel or "soft spot" in the middle of the head.

FORAMINOTOMY

Surgical opening or enlargement of the bony opening traversed by a nerve root as it leaves the spinal canal.

FUSIFORM ANEURYSM

A sausage-like enlargement of the vessel

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INFUNDIBULUM

A stalk extending from the base of the brain to the pituitary gland.

INTRA-AORTIC BALLOON COUNTER PULSATION DEVICE

A pump which is inserted into the main vessel of the body, the aorta, to help the heart deliver blood to critical organs such as the brain or kidneys.

INTRA-ARTERIAL CATHETERIZATION ANGIOGRAPHY

An invasive study in which a catheter (a small tube) is placed in the artery and contrast material is injected to which makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image. The catheter is inserted in the groin into the femoral artery (the artery to the leg) through a needle, and is guided into the arteries in the neck and head. This study is associated with a very small (less than 0.05%) chance of serious complications and requires the patient to lie in bed for approximately six hours to allow the leg vessel to heal.

INTRACEREBRAL HEMATOMA

A blood clot within the brain.

INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE (ICP)

The overall pressure inside the skull.

INTRAOPERATIVE CISTERNOGRAPHY

Administration of a contrast dye into the ventricles which are chambers in the brain that contain brain fluid.

ISCHEMIA

Inadequate circulation of blood generally due to a blockage of an artery.

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GALACTORRHEA

The discharge of milk from the breasts.

GAMMA KNIFE

Equipment that precisely delivers a concentrated dose of radiation to a predetermined target using gamma rays.

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale.

GLASGOW COMA SCALE

The most widely used system of classifying the severity of head injuries or other neurologic diseases.

GLASGOW OUTCOME SCALE

A widely used system of classifying outcome after head injury or other neurologic diseases.

GLIA (ALSO TERMED NEUROGLIA)

The major support cells of the brain. These cells are involved in the nutrition and maintenance of the nerve cells.

GLIOBLASTOMA

A rapidly growing tumor composed of primitive glial cells, mainly arising from astrocytes.

GLIOMA

A tumor formed by glial cells.

GLOBUS PALLIDUS

Part of the basal ganglia which are brain cells that lie deep in the brain.

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HEMANGIOMA

An aggregation of multiple, dilated, blood vessels.

HEMATOMA

A blood clot.

HEMIANOPIA

Loss of vision of one-half of the visual field.

HEMIATROPHY

Atrophy of half of an organ or half of the body.

HEMIPLEGIA

Paralysis of one side of the body.

HEMORRHAGE

Bleeding due to the escape of blood from a blood vessel.

HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS (HNP)

Extrusion of the central portion of an intervertebral disc through the outer cartilaginous ring. The material can compress the spinal cord or nerves in or exiting the spinal canal.

HORMONE

A chemical substance formed in one gland or part of the body and carried by the blood to another organ which it stimulates to functional activity.

HYDROCEPHALUS

A condition, often congenital, marked by abnormal and excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles. This dilates the ventricles and in infants and young children causes the head to enlarge.

HYDROMYELIA

Expansion of the spinal cord due to increased size of the central canal of the cord which is filled with CSF.

HYPERACUSIS

Abnormal acuteness of hearing or auditory sensation.

HYPERESTHESIA

Excessive sensibility to touch, pain or other stimuli.

HYPERTENSION

High blood pressure.

HYPOTHALAMUS

A collection of specialized nerve cells at the base of the brain which controls the anterior and posterior pituitary secretions, and is involved in other basic regulatory functions such as temperature control and attention.

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JUGULAR VEINS

The major veins on each side of the neck draining blood from the head towards the heart.

LABYRINTH

The internal ear, comprising the semi-circular canals, vestibule and cochlea.

LAMINA

The flattened or arched part of the vertebral arch, forming the roof of the spinal canal.

LAMINECTOMY

Excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae.

LAMINOTOMY

An opening made in a lamina.

LEPTOMENINGES

Two thin layers of fine tissue covering the brain and spinal cord (the pia mater and arachnoid).

LEPTOMENINGITIS

Inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

LEUKODYSTROPHY

Disturbance of the white matter of the brain.

LEUKOENCEPHALITIS

An inflammation of the white matter of the brain.

LINEAR ACCELERATOR

Equipment that precisely delivers a concentrated dose of radiation to a predetermined target using x-rays.

LIPOMA

A benign fatty tumor, usually composed of mature fat cells.

LORDOSIS

Curvature of the spine with the convexity forward.

LUMBAR DRAIN

A device (usually a long, thin, flexible tube) inserted through the skin into the cerebrospinal fluid space of the lower back; provides a method of draining cerebrospinal fluid.

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MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY (MRA)

A non-invasive study which is conducted in a Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI). The magnetic images are assembled by a computer to provide an image of the arteries in the head and neck. No contrast material is needed, but some patients may experience claustrophobia in the Imager.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)

Diagnostic test that produces three-dimensional images of body structures using powerful magnets and computer technology rather than x-rays.

MEDIAN NERVE

The nerve formed from the brachial plexus that supplies muscles in the anterior forearm and thumb, as well as sensation of the hand. It may be compressed or trapped at the wrist in carpal tunnel syndrome.

MEDULLOBLASTOMA

Tumor composed of medulloblasts which are cells which develop in the roof of the fourth ventricle (medullary velum).

MENINGES

The three membranes covering the spinal cord and brain termed dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater.

MENINGIOMA

A firm, often vascular, tumor arising from the coverings of the brain.

MENINGITIS

An infection or inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

MENINGOCELE

A protrusion of the coverings of the spinal cord or brain through a defect in the skull or vertebral column.

MENINGOENCEPHALITIS

An inflammation or infection of the brain and meninges.

MENINGOENCEPHALOCELE

A protrusion of both the meninges and brain tissue through a skull defect.

MRA Magnetic Resonance Angiography.

A non-invasive study which is conducted in a Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI). The magnetic images are assembled by a computer to provide an image of the arteries in the head and neck. No contrast material is needed, but some patients may experience claustrophobia in the Imager.

MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Scanning technique for views of the brain or spinal cord. No radiation is involved, but rather pulsed magnetic waves are used to delineate the structures within the brain.

MYELIN

The fat-like substance which surrounds the axon of nerve fibers and forms an insulating material.

MYELOGRAM

An x-ray of the spinal canal following injection of a contrast material into the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid spaces.

MYELOMENINGOCELE

A protrusion of the spinal cord and its coverings through a defect in the vertebral column.

MYELOPATHY

Any functional or pathologic disturbance in the spinal cord.

MYOPATHY

Any disease of muscle.

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NEURALGIA

A paroxysmal pain extending along the course of one or more nerves.

NEURECTOMY

Excision of part of a nerve.

NEURITIS

Inflammation of a nerve; may also be used to denote non-inflammatory nerve lesions of the peripheral nervous system.

NEUROBLASTOMA

Tumor of sympathetic nervous system origin, found mostly in infants and children.

NEUROFIBROMA

A tumor of the peripheral nerves due to an abnormal collection of fibrous and insulating cells.

NEUROFIBROMATOSIS

A familial condition characterized by developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles and skin, marked by numerous tumors affecting these organ systems.

NEUROHYPOPHYSIS

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

NEUROLYSIS

Removal of scar or reactive tissue from a nerve or nerve root.

NEUROMA

A tumor or new growth largely made up of nerve fibers and connective tissue.

NEUROPATHY

Any functional or pathologic disturbance in the peripheral nervous system.

NYSTAGMUS

Involuntary rapid movement of the eyes in the horizontal, vertical or rotary planes of the eyeball.

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OCCIPUT

The back part of the head.

OLIGODENDROGLIA

Non-nerve cells (see glia) forming part of the supporting structure of the central nervous system.

OLIGODENDROGLIOMA

A growth of new cells derived from the oligodendroglia.

OPHTHALMOPLEGIA

Paralysis of one or more of the eye muscles.

OSTEOMA

A benign tumor of bone.

OSTEOMYELITIS

Inflammation of bone due to infection, which may be localized or generalized.

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PAPILLEDEMA

Swelling of the optic nerve head, can be seen in the back of the retina during eye examination.

PARAPLEGIA

Paralysis of the lower part of the body including the legs.

PERITONEAL CAVITY

Body cavity in which the abdominal organs are situated.

PITUITARY

Gland at base of the brain which secretes hormones into the blood stream. Those hormones then regulate other glands including the thyroid, adrenals and gonads. The "Master Gland."

POLYNEURITIS

Inflammation of two or more nerves simultaneously.

PORENCEPHALY

Abnormal cavity within brain tissue, usually resulting from outpouching of a lateral ventricle.

POST-ICTAL

State following a seizure, often characterized by altered function of the limbs and/or mentation.

PROPRIOCEPTION

Sensation concerning movements of joints and position of the body in space.

PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI

Raised intracranial pressure, usually causing only headache and papilledema. No clear underlying structural abnormality.

PUPIL

The black part of the eye through which light enters; enlarges in dim light and decreases in size in bright light.

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QUADRANTANOPIA

Defect in vision or blindness in one-fourth of the visual field.

QUADRIPLEGIA

Paralysis of all four limbs.

RACHISCHISIS

Abnormal congenital opening of the vertebral column.

RADIATION ONCOLOGIST

A medical doctor who has received advanced training in the treatment of persons receiving x-ray treatment for an illness.

RADIATION PHYSICIST

A person having a PhD degree who is trained in the science dealing with the properties, changes and interactions of continous energy.

RADIOLOGIST

A medical doctor who has received specialized training in interpreting x-rays, CTs, MRIs and performing angiography.

RADIOTHERAPY

Treatment of a lesion with radiation.

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SACCULAR ANEURYSM

A balloon-like outpouching of a vessel (the more common type of aneurysm).

SCOTOMA

An area of decreased vision surrounded by an area of less depressed or normal vision.

SHUNT

A tube or device implanted in the body (usually made of Silastic) to redivert excess CSF away from the brain to another place in the body.

SPINA BIFIDA

A congenital defect of the spine marked by the absence of a portion of the spine.

SPINAL FUSION

Operative method of strengthening and limiting motion of the spinal column. Can be performed with a variety of metal instruments and bone grafts, or bone grafts alone.

SPONDYLOLISTHESIS

Forward displacement of one vertebra on another.

SPONDYLOSIS

Degenerative bone changes in the spine usually most marked at the vertebral joints.

STENOSIS

Narrowing.

STEREOTACTIC

Originated from the Greek words "stereo," meaning three dimensional, and "tactos," meaning touched.

STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY

The precise delivery of radiation to a preselected stereotactically localized target.

STRABISMUS

Deviation of eye movement which prevents the two eyes from moving in a parallel fashion.

SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE

Blood in, or bleeding into, the space under the arachnoid membrane, most commonly from trauma or from rupture of an aneurysm.

SUBDURAL HEMATOMA

A collection of blood (clot) trapped under the dura mater, the outermost membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

SYRINGOMYELIA

A fluid filled cavity in the spinal cord.

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TERATOMA

Tumor or growth made up of several different types of tissue (fat, bone, muscle, skin).

THALAMUS

Brain cells which lie in the upper part of the brainstem.

THROMBUS

A blood clot attached to the wall of an artery.

TIC DOULOUREUX

(See trigeminal neuralgia.)

TRANSSPHENOIDAL APPROACH

Operative method of reaching the pituitary gland or skull base traversing the nose and sinuses.

TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA

Paroxysmal pain in the face. Pain may be so severe that it causes an involuntary grimace or "tic" (Tic Douloureux).

ULTRASOUND

The use of high-frequency sound to create images of internal body structures.

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VALVE

Device placed in a shunt system to regulate the rate and direction of CSF flow.

VASOCONSTRICTION

A decrease in the diameter of blood vessels.

VASODILATATION

An increase in the diameter of blood vessels.

VASOPRESSIN

A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary which raises blood pressure and increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys.

VASOPRESSOR

An agent which constricts the arteries and raises blood pressure.

VASOSPASM

Spasm of blood vessels, decreasing their diameter.

VENTRICLE

The cavities or chambers within the brain which contain the cerebrospinal fluid. There are two lateral ventricles and midline third and fourth ventricles.

VENTRICULAR DRAINAGE

Insertion of a small tube into the ventricles to drain cerebrospinal fluid, usually when pressure is increased.

VENTRICULITIS

Inflammation and/or infection of the ventricles.

VENTRICULOGRAM

An xray study of the ventricles.

VENTRICULOSTOMY

An opening into the ventricles of the brain, such as by inserting a small, thin, hollow catheter.

VERMIS

Middle part of the cerebellum between the two hemispheres.

VERTEBRA

Any of the thirty-three bones of the spinal column.

VERTIGO

An abnormal sensation of rotation or movement of one's self or environment.

X-RAY

Application of electromagnetic radiation to produce a film or picture of a bone or soft-tissue area of the body.

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